The Extrapulmonary Manifestations of SARS-CoV-2

Mohsin Majeed1, Tayyaba Noor1, *
1 Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

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© 2021 Majeed and Noor

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan; Tel: +92-332-0524534; E-mail:


SARS-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the latest strain of coronavirus that causes the viral infection, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The initial studies on the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) focused on respiratory outcomes of this viral infection. More recent research on the mechanism of action of SARS-CoV-2 shows that the virus enters the cells through the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor. This receptor is present not just in the cell membranes of respiratory cells but also in the cell membranes of cells present in other organs of the body. This enables the virus to have severe outcomes in the body beyond the respiratory system. Providing a possible immunizing agent against coronavirus is a major challenge pertaining to the fact that ongoing pandemic has already taken millions of lives. This paper discusses the extrapulmonary effects of COVID-19, with an emphasis on clinical manifestations, mechanism of action, and special focus to management considerations in each of these cases. The essential therapeutics and treatments proposed for dealing with the COVID-19 infection have also been discussed. While the answer to whether these therapies work, successfully controlling the immunoinflammatory response is still unclear, ongoing trials of multiple drugs for this purpose are an excellent way to ultimately reach a product that works successfully.

Keywords: Clinical implication of COVID-19, Extrapulmonary effects of COVID-19, Multi-organ effects of COVID-19, Pathophysiology, Therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2, Organ damage.