Investigation of in Hospital COVID-19 Mortality and One-year Follow-up of Lung Function and Health Status

Jonas Agholme1, Karin Cederquist1, Konstantinos Vougas2, Mirjam Schimanke1, 3, Tove Eldh1, 3, Petros Effraimidis1, Christina Triantafyllidou1, *
1 Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Pulmonary Medicine, Vrinnevi Hospital, Norrköping, Sweden
2 Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, 4 Soranou Ephessiou Str., Athens 11527, Greece; Molecular Carcinogenesis Group, Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias Str., Athens 11527, Greece
3 Department of Internal Medicine, COVID-19 outpatient department, Vrinnevi Hospital, Norrköping, Sweden

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 203
Abstract HTML Views: 84
PDF Downloads: 86
ePub Downloads: 43
Total Views/Downloads: 416
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 149
Abstract HTML Views: 61
PDF Downloads: 69
ePub Downloads: 32
Total Views/Downloads: 311

Creative Commons License
© 2022 Agholme et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Pulmonary Medicine, Vrinnevi Hospital, Norrköping, Sweden; E-mail:



Globally, thousands of patients suffer from postacute COVID-19 syndrome, a condition that already affects our health system. Although there is a growing literature upon the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection, there are up to date only a few reports on long-term follow-up of pulmonary function after severe COVID-19.


To investigate risk factors for in-hospital COVID-19 fatalities and to assess the lung function and health status at one year after hospital discharge.


Patients who were admitted to the hospital with confirmed COVID-19 and required supplementary oxygen delivery were included in this observational cohort study. Baseline and demographic data and information about hospital stay were obtained by medical charts. Patients were divided in 3 groups: group 1 (intensive care unit (ICU)-invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), group 2 (high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and/or none-invasive ventilation (NIV) and group 3 (regular oxygen delivery treatment). All patients were required to answer health questionnaires at one year after acute infection, while patients in groups 1 and 2 performed dynamic spirometry.


The study population consisted of 130 patients. Forty five (35%) patients died at the hospital. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality were age, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and renal disease. We did not find any significant difference in health scales between the 3 groups. Mean values of both FEV1% and FVC% in groups 1 and 2 were detected within the lower normal limits with no difference between the two groups.


The main result of the study is lung function in the lower limit of normal evaluated at one-year follow-up. There were no significant differences related to initial disease severity in lung function and long-term health status, which suggests that more generous lung function testing even in less severely affected patients, could be indicated.

Keywords: Post-acute COVID-19, In-hospital mortality, Pulmonary function tests, Invasive mechanical ventilation, High-flow nasal cannula, Post-COVID-19 functional status scale, Outcome.