Comparison, by Country, of the Uptake of COVID-19 Vaccination by Health Care Workers in the EU/EEA, January – June 2021

Therese McGlacken1, *, Mary Codd1
1 School of Public Health, Physiotherapy, and Sports Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

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Creative Commons License
© 2023 McGlacken and Codd

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the School of Public Health, Physiotherapy, and Sports Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; E-mail:



The aim of this study was to compare, by country, COVID-19 vaccination uptake by Health Care Workers (HCWs) from January to June 2021, to assist with policy making and prospective planning in these countries during the COVID-19 pandemic and into the future.


Health Care Workers (HCWs) are at high risk of exposure to COVID-19 when providing care to patients. We investigated the uptake of COVID-19 vaccination among HCWs in the EU/EEA and discussed the factors which influence this uptake.


The study population included all the countries in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). The secondary data file was downloaded from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) website. Descriptive and comparative data were analysed and presented using Excel and Chi-square test of hypothesis.


The proportion of HCWs in EU/EEA countries ranged from 1.2% to 5.1% per population. From January to June 2021, the proportion of first and second dose vaccinations of HCWs ranged from 20% to 100% and from 21% to 100%, respectively. The Comirnaty–Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine (COM) was the most administered vaccine in all EU/EEA countries, followed by the Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccine (MOD) and the Astra-Zeneca–Vaxzevria vaccine (AZ). In January 2021, a median of 29% of HCWs received their first dose of COVID-19 vaccination. Italy was the only country with a mandatory vaccination policy for HCWs. Vaccination uptake rates were statistically different among EU countries (p<0.05).


Data such as these could be used in mathematical modelling potential future pandemics to predict vaccine up-take by selected, exposed, vulnerable sectors of the population, for whom it is relevant.

Keywords: Healthcare workers, Vaccine, Hesitancy, COVID-19, Vaccination, MOD.